Risk factors for peripheral intravenous catheter infection in hospitalized patients: A prospective study of 3165 patients

      We conducted a prospective study of 6538 polyurethane peripheral intravenous (IV) catheters in 3165 hospitalized adult patients using semiquantitative culture techniques. We found that extending the scheduled catheter replacement interval from 48 to 72 hours to 72 to 96 hours was not a risk factor for local catheter infection, but that catheter insertion by personnel other than IV therapists and the use of continuous infusion to maintain catheter patency were 2 independent risk factors for infection.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Infection Control
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Raad I.
        • Hanna H.A.
        • Awad A.
        • Alrahwan A.
        • Bivins C.
        • Khan A.
        • et al.
        Optimal frequency of changing intravenous administration sets: is it safe to prolong use beyond 72 hours?.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001; 22: 136-191
        • Bregenzer T.
        • Conen D.
        • Sakmann P.
        • Widmer A.F.
        Is routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters necessary?.
        Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158: 151-156
        • Gillies D.
        • O'Riordan L.
        • Wallen M.
        • Morrison A.
        • Rankin K.
        • Nagy S.
        Optimal timing for intravenous administration set replacement.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; 4 (CD003588)
        • O'Grady N.P.
        • Alexander M.
        • Dellinger E.P.
        • Gerberding J.L.
        • Heard S.O.
        • Maki D.G.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002; 51: 1-26
        • Lai K.K.
        Safety of prolonging peripheral cannula and IV tubing use from 72 hours to 96 hours.
        Am J Infect Control. 1998; 26: 66-70
        • Maki D.G.
        • Ringer M.
        Evaluation of dressing regimens for prevention of infection with peripheral intravenous catheters.
        JAMA. 1987; 258: 2396-2403
        • Craven D.E.
        • Lichtenberg D.A.
        • Kunches L.M.
        • McDonough A.T.
        • Gonzalez M.I.
        • Heeren T.C.
        • et al.
        A randomized study comparing a transparent polyurethane dressing to a dry gauze dressing for peripheral intravenous catheter sites.
        Infect Control. 1985; 6: 361-366
        • Uslusoy E.
        • Mete S.
        Predisposing factors to phlebitis in patients with peripheral intravenous catheters: a descriptive study.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008; 20: 172-180
        • Maki D.G.
        • Weise C.E.
        • Sarafin H.W.
        A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous catheter–related infection.
        N Engl J Med. 1977; 296: 1305-1309
        • Maki D.G.
        • Ringer M.
        Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters: a randomized controlled trial.
        Ann Intern Med. 1991; 114: 845-854
        • Mermel L.A.
        • Farr B.M.
        • Sherertz R.J.
        • Raad I.I.
        • O'Grady N.
        • Harris J.S.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter–related infections.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 32: 1249-1272
        • Horsburgh C.R.
        • Mahon B.E.
        Infectious disease epidemiology.
        in: Rothman K.J. Greenland S. Lash T.L. Modern Epidemiology. 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2008: 551
        • Brandt C.T.
        Phlebitis due to venous catheters, causes and occurrence.
        Ugeskrift for Laeger. 2000; 162 (in German): 4531-4534
        • Malach T.
        • Jerassy Z.
        • Rudensky B.
        • Schlesinger Y.
        • Broide E.
        • Olsha O.
        • et al.
        Prospective surveillance of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters.
        Am J Infect Control. 2006; 34: 308-312
        • Catney M.R.
        • Hillis S.
        • Wakefield B.
        • Simpson L.
        • Domino L.
        • Keller S.
        • et al.
        Relationship between peripheral intravenous catheter dwell time and the development of phlebitis and infiltration.
        J Infus Nurs. 2001; 24: 332-341
        • Sifer N.
        • Borzak S.
        • Edlin B.
        • Weinstein R.
        Prevention of peripheral venous catheter complications with an intravenous therapy team: a randomized control trial.
        Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158: 473-477
        • Brunelle D.
        Impact of a dedicated infusion therapy team on the reduction of catheter-related nosocomial infections.
        J Infus Nur. 2003; 26: 362-366