Advertisement

Antimicrobial activity of a new intact skin antisepsis formulation

      Abstract

      Different antiseptic formulations have shown limitations when applied to disinfecting intact skin, notably short-term tolerability and/or efficacy. The purpose of this study was optimizing a new antiseptic formulation specifically targeted at intact skin disinfection and evaluating its in vitro microbicidal activity and in vivo efficacy. Methods: The biocidal properties of the antiseptic solution containing 0.5% chloramine-T diluted in 50% isopropyl alcohol (Cloral; Eurospital SpA Trieste, Italy) were measured in vitro versus gram-positive-, gram-negative-, and acid-alcohol-resistant germs and fungi with standard suspension tests in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Virus-inhibiting activity was evaluated in vitro against human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Tests used different methods for the different biologic and in vitro replication capacity of these human viruses. Lastly, Cloral tolerability and skin colonization retardation efficacy after disinfection were studied in vivo. Results: The antiseptic under review showed fast and sustained antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of Cloral against clinically important bacterial and viral pathogens and fungi was highlighted under the experimental conditions described in this article. Finally, microbial regrowth lag and no side effects were documented in vivo after disinfection of 11 volunteers. Conclusions: A stable chloramine-T solution in isopropyl alcohol may be suggested for intact skin antisepsis. (Am J Infect Control 2002;31:117-23.)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Infection Control
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Rourke C
        • Bates C
        • Read RG.
        Poor hospital infection control practice in venepuncture and use of tourniquets.
        J Hosp Infect. 2001; 49: 59-61
        • D'Errico MM
        • Savini S
        • Prospero E
        • Annino I.
        Report on a packaged hand washing antiseptic contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000; 21: 30
        • Ole S
        • Kamiya A.
        Microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants.
        Am J Infect Control. 1996; 24: 389-395
        • Hadfield WA.
        Chlorine and chlorine compounds.
        in: 2nd ed. Antiseptics, disinfectants, fungicides and sterilization. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia1957: 567
        • Dychdala GR.
        Chlorine and chlorine compounds.
        in: 4th ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 135
        • Agolini G
        • Micali G
        • Raitano A.
        Antisettici e chemioterapici nella terapia topica delle ustioni.
        Riv Ital Chir Plastica. 1998; 30: 233-267
        • Gottardi W
        • Karl A.
        Die bakterizide Wirkung von Chlorüberzügen: ein neues Modell zur remanenten Hautdesinfektion.
        Hyg Med. 1991; 16: 51-54
      1. Budesgesundheitsamt.
        Bundesgesundheitsbl. 1994; 37: 128-142
        • Nagl M
        • Gottardi W.
        In vitro experiments on the bactericidal action of N-chloro-taurine.
        Hyg Med. 1992; 17: 431-439
        • Nagl M
        • Larcher C.
        Die viruzide Wirkung von N-chortaurine.
        Hyg Med. 1996; 21: 44
        • McDonnell G
        • Pretzer D.
        New and developing chemical antimicrobials.
        in: Block SS Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 434-436
        • Koller W
        • Rotter ML
        • Gottardi W.
        Do “chlorine covers” exert a sustained bactericidal effect on the bacterial hand flora?.
        J Hosp Infect. 1995; 31: 169-176
        • Coates D
        • Death JE.
        Sporicidal activity of mixtures of alcohol and hypo chlorite.
        J Clin Pathol. 1978; 31: 148-152
      2. Project European Norm 12054—Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics—products for hygienic and surgical hand rub and hand wash.
        Bactericidal activity—test method and requirements. 1995;
        • Prince PB.
        The bacteriology of the normal skin: a new quantitative test applied to a study of the bacterial flora and the disinfection action of a mechanical cleaning.
        J Infect Dis. 1988; 63: 301-318
        • Tjotta E
        • Hungnes O
        • Grinde B.
        Survival of HIV-1 activity after disinfection, temperature and pH changes or drying.
        J Med Virol. 1991; 35: 223-227
        • Bloomfield SF
        • Smith-Burchnell CA
        • Dalgleish AG.
        Evaluation of hypochlorite releasing disinfectants against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
        J Hosp Infect. 1990; 15: 273-278
        • Gordon V
        • Parry L
        • Bellamy K
        • Osborne R.
        Assessment of chemical disinfectants against human immunodeficiency virus: overcoming the problem of cytotoxicity and the evaluation of selected activities.
        J Virol Methods. 1993; 45: 247-257
        • Prince DL
        • Prince HN
        • Thraenhart O
        • Muchmore E
        • Bonder E
        • Pugh J.
        Methodological approach to disinfection of human hepatitis B virus.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1993; 31: 3296-3304
        • Agolini G
        • Russo A
        • Clementi M.
        Effect of phenolic and chlorine disinfectants on hepatitis C virus binding and infectivity.
        Am J Infect Control. 1999; 27: 236-239
        • Thraenhart O.
        Measures for disinfection and control for virus hepatitis.
        in: 4th ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia1991: 445-471
        • Valli MB
        • Carloni G
        • Manzin A
        • Nassori F
        • Ponzetto A
        • Clementi M.
        Hepatitis C virus infection of a VERO cell clone displaying efficient virus-cell binding.
        Res Virol. 1997; 148: 181-186
        • Menzo S
        • Bagnarelli P
        • Giacca M
        • Manzin A
        • Varaldo PE
        • Clementi M.
        Absolute quantification of viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection by competitive reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30: 1752-1757
        • Manzin A
        • Bagnarelli P
        • Menzo S
        • Giostra F
        • Brugia M
        • Francesconi R
        • et al.
        Quantification of HCV genome molecules in plasma samples.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32: 1939-1944
        • Pitten FA
        • Kramer A.
        Antimicrobial efficacy of anti-septic mouth rinse solutions.
        Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 55: 95-100
        • Fuursted K
        • Hjort A
        • Knudsen L.
        Evaluation of bactericidal activity and lag of regrowth (post antibiotic effect) of five antiseptics on nine bacterial pathogens.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997; 40: 221-226
        • Bloomfield SF
        • Smith-Burchnell CA
        • Dalglesh AG.
        Evaluation of hypo chlorite-releasing disinfectants against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
        J Hosp Infect. 1990; 15: 273-278
        • Bernstein D
        • Schiff G
        • Echler G
        • Prince A
        • Feller M
        • Briner W.
        In vitro virucidal effectiveness of a 0.12%-chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse.
        J Dent Res. 1990; 69: 874-876
        • Baqui AA
        • Kelley JI
        • Jabra-Rizk E
        • Depaola LG
        • Falkler WA
        • Meiller TF.
        In vitro effect of oral antiseptics non-human immunodeficiency virus-1 and herpes simplex virus type 1.
        J Clin Periodotol. 2001; 28: 610-616
        • Denton GW.
        Chlorhexidine.
        in: 5th ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 325-336
        • Hugo V
        • Russell AD.
        Types of antimicrobial agents in principles and practice of disinfection, preservation and sterilization.
        Blackwell Science. 1999; (3rd Ed): 5-94
        • Jeng DK
        • Severin JE.
        Povidone iodine gel alcohol: a 30-second, onetime application preoperative skin preparation.
        Am J Infect Control. 1998; 26: 488-494
        • Ali Y
        • Dolan MJ
        • Fendler EJ
        • Larson EL.
        Alcohols.
        in: Block SS Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 5th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001: 229-253
        • Foegeding PM.
        Bacterial spore resistance to chlorine compounds.
        Food Technol. 1983;November; 100 (110): 104
        • Coates D
        • Death JE.
        Sporicidal activity of mixtures of alcohol and hypochlorite.
        J Clin Pathol. 1978; 31: 148
        • Death JE
        • Coates D.
        Effect of pH sporicidal and microbicidal activity of buffered mixtures of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite.
        J Clin Pathol. 1979; 32: 148