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- Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51: 1-45
- Role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention.J Hosp Infect. 2009; 73: 305-315
- Handwashing practices in an intensive care unit: the effects of an educational program and its relationship to infection rates.Am J Infect Control. 1989; 17: 330-339
- A causal link between handwashing and risk of infection? Examination of the evidence.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1988; 9: 28-36
- Handwashing program for the prevention of nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004; 25: 742-746
- Reduction in nosocomial infection with improved hand hygiene in intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in Argentina.Am J Infect Control. 2005; 33: 392-397
- Hand contamination before and after different hand hygiene techniques: a randomized clinical trial.J Hosp Infect. 2002; 50: 276-280
- Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care.Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159: 821-826
- Microbiological evaluation of two hand hygiene procedures achieved by healthcare workers during routine patient care: a randomized study.J Hosp Infect. 2005; 60: 32-39
- Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial.BMJ. 2002; 325: 362-366
- Hand hygiene: improved standards and practice for hospital care.Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003; 16: 327-335
- Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility.Am J Infect Control. 2003; 31: 109-116
- Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene.Lancet. 2000; 356: 1307-1312
- A comprehensive hygiene approach to reducing MRSA health care-associated infections.Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009; 35: 180-185
- Significant reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and clinical isolates associated with a multisite, hand hygiene culture-change program and subsequent successful statewide roll-out.Med J Aust. 2008; 188: 633-640
- A lean six sigma team increases hand hygiene compliance and reduces hospital-acquired MRSA infections by 51%.J Healthc Qual. 2010; 32: 61-70
- Efficacy of an alcohol/chlorhexidine hand hygiene program in a hospital with high rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.Med J Aust. 2005; 183: 509-514
- WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2009
- SHEA/APIC guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility.Am J Infect Control. 2008; 36: 504-535
- Infection control issues in older adults.Clin Geriatr Med. 2007; 23 (Available from) (Accessed August 31, 2011): 499-514
- Infection control in long-term care facilities.Clin Infect Dis. 2000; 31 (Available from) (Accessed August 31, 2011): 752-756
- Antimicrobial use in post-acute care: a retrospective descriptive analysis in seven long-term care facilities in Georgia.J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2005; 6: 109-112
- Emerging health care-associated infections in the geriatric population.Emerg Infect Dis. 2001; 7 (Available from) (Accessed August 30, 2011): 268-270
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria at a long-term care facility: assessment of residents, healthcare workers, and inanimate surfaces.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009; 30: 1172-1179
- SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. SHEA position paper: Clostridium difficile in long-term-care facilities for the elderly.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002; 23: 696-703
- Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source for transmission of epidemic and nonepidemic Clostridium difficile strains among long-term care facility residents.Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45 (Available from) (Accessed September 5, 2011): 992-998
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for norovirus outbreaks. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsNorovirus/. Accessed August 30, 2011.
- Medicare and Medicaid programs. Fire safety requirements for certain health care facilities; amendment. Final rule. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.Fed Regist. 2006; 71 (Available from) (Accessed September 5, 2011): 55326-55341
- A realistic approach towards hand hygiene for long-term care residents and health care personnel.Am J Infect Control. 2011; 39: 336-338
Department of Health and Human Services and Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2009. Transmittal 48: revisions to Appendix PP, “Guidance to Surveyors of Long Term Care Facilities, Tag F 255.” Available from: https://www.cms.gov/transmittals/downloads/R48SOMA.pdf. Accessed November 9, 2011.
- The burden of infection in long-term care.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000; 21: 674-679
- The emerging threat of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms in long-term care facilities.J Gerontol. 2009; 64A (Available from) (Accessed August 31, 2011): 138-141
- Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii in a long-term acute care facility.Am J Infect Control. 2008; 36: 468-471
- Epidemiology of bloodstream infection in nursing home residents: evaluation in a large cohort from multiple homes.Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 35: 1484-1490
- Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in nursing home residents.Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46 (Available from) (Accessed August 31, 2011): 1368-1373
- Introduction of a waterless alcohol-based hand rub in a long-term-care facility.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003; 24: 165-171
- Clustered randomized controlled trial of a hand hygiene intervention involving pocket-sized containers of alcohol-based hand rub for the control of infections in long-term care facilities.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011; 32: 67-76
- The impact of alcohol hand sanitizer use on infection rates in an extended care facility.Am J Infect Control. 2002; 30: 226-233
- Effect of a comprehensive infection control program on the incidence of infections in long-term care facilities.Am J Infect Control. 2000; 28: 3-7
- Role of hospital surfaces in the transmission of emerging health care-associated pathogens: norovirus, Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter species.Am J Infect Control. 2010; 38: S25-S33
- Contamination, disinfection, and cross-colonization: are hospital surfaces reservoirs for nosocomial infection?.Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39 (Available from) (Accessed September 16, 2011): 1182-1189
Istenes N, Hazelett S, Kirk J, Bingham J, Fleming E. Hand hygiene in healthcare: the role of the patient. Poster session presented at: APIC Annual Conference. Baltimore, MD; 2011.
Department of Health and Human Services and Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2009. Transmittal 55: revisions to Appendix PP, “Interpretive Guidelines for Long Term Care Facilities, Tag F 441.” Available from: http://www.cms.gov/transmittals/downloads/R55SOMA.pdf. Accessed January 22, 2012.
- Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behavior: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).J Hosp Infect. 2008; 68: 222-229
- Variability in the Hawthorne effect with regard to hand hygiene performance in high- and low-performing inpatient care units.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009; 30: 222-225
- Definitions of infection for surveillance in long-term care facilities.Am J Infect Control. 1991; 19: 1-7
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Training manual and users’ guide. Available from: https://www.papsrs.state.pa.us/PSA/. Accessed September 27, 2011.
- How Maryland increased infection prevention and control activity in long-term care facilities, 2003-2008.Am J Infect Control. 2011; 39: 292-295
- Two time-series analyses of the impact of antibiotic consumption and alcohol-based hand disinfection on the incidences of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and Clostridium difficile infection.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009; 30: 346-353
- Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers as a risk factor for norovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities in northern New England: December 2006 to March 2007.Am J Infect Control. 2011; 39: 296-301
- Handwashing and glove use in a long-term-care facility.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997; 18: 97-103
- Hand hygiene practices of health care workers in long-term care facilities.Am J Infect Control. 2008; 36: 492-494
- Decreasing hospital-associated rotavirus infection: a multidisciplinary hand hygiene campaign in a children’s hospital.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005; 24: 397-403
- Performance feedback of hand hygiene, using alcohol gel as the skin decontaminant, reduces the number of inpatients newly affected by MRSA and antibiotic costs.J Hosp Infect. 2004; 56: 56-63
- Handwashing compliance by health care workers.Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 1017-1021
- Increased use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers and successful eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a neonatal intensive care unit: a multivariate time series analysis.Am J Infect Control. 2010; 38: 529-534
- Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on hospital-acquired infections.J Hosp Infect. 2001; 48: S40-S46
- Hand hygiene in long-term care facilities: a multicenter study of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010; 31: 758-762
Conflicts of interest: J.K. and S.E. are full time employees of GOJO Industries; S.S. and D.R. are consultants for GOJO Industries.