Relationship between local family physician supply and influenza vaccination after controlling for individual and neighborhood effects

Published:March 17, 2014DOI:


      Family physicians (FPs) play an important role in influenza vaccination. We investigated how local FP supply is associated with influenza vaccination, controlling for both individual-level and county-level characteristics.


      The 2008-2010 individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were merged with county-level data from the Area Resource File (n = 985,157). Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to predict influenza vaccination using the number of FPs per 1000 population as the key predictor, adjusting for individual-level demographic, socioeconomic, and health information, as well as county-level racial composition and income level. Additional analyses were performed across racial/ethnic and employment status categories.


      Increasing local FP supply was associated with higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-1.67) and varied across racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic: aOR, 2.05, 95% CI, 1.55-2.72; non-Hispanic white: aOR, 1.57, 95% CI, 1.48-1.66; non-Hispanic black: aOR, 1.49, 95% CI, 1.18-1.89), employment status categories, and county types.


      FP supply was significantly associated with influenza vaccination. The association was greatest among those who were Hispanic, residing in a rural area, or out of work. Our findings lend support to initiatives aimed at increasing the FP supply, particularly among disadvantaged populations.

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