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Routine monitoring of adenovirus and norovirus within the health care environment

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    ,
    Author Footnotes
    2 Contributed equally to this study.
    Louise Pankhurst
    Footnotes
    1 Current address: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    2 Contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    CEGE, Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Contributed equally to this study.
    Elaine Cloutman-Green
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Elaine Cloutman-Green, MRes, Microbiology, Level 4 Cameliar Botnar Laboratory, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Great Ormond St, London WC1N 3JH, UK.
    Footnotes
    2 Contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Foundation Trust, Cameliar Botnar Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Virology and Infection Prevention and Control, London, UK
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  • Melisa Canales
    Affiliations
    CEGE, Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK
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  • Nikki D'Arcy
    Affiliations
    CEGE, Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK
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  • John C. Hartley
    Affiliations
    Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Foundation Trust, Cameliar Botnar Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Virology and Infection Prevention and Control, London, UK
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    2 Contributed equally to this study.
      This study investigated the presence of adenovirus and norovirus on ward surfaces using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assist in the development of evidence-based infection control policy. Screening was carried out weekly for 6 months in the common areas of 2 pediatric wards. Additionally, a one-off screening was undertaken for adenovirus and norovirus on a day unit and for adenovirus only in patient cubicles while occupied. Over the 6-month screening of common areas, 2.4% of samples were positive for adenovirus or norovirus. In rooms occupied with adenovirus-infected children, all cubicle screening sites and almost all swabs were contaminated with adenovirus. In the day unit, 13% of samples were positive. Cleaning and environmental interaction strategies must therefore be designed to control nosocomial transmission of viruses outside of outbreak scenarios.

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