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Association of Clostridium difficile infection in hospital mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) contributed to hospital mortality and whether the correlation between intensive care units (ICUs) and surgical wards in hospital CDI risk still remain controversial.

      Methods

      By meta-analysis, 12 eligible studies involving 8,509 cases and 247,285 controls were identified via PubMed and Embase.

      Results

      CDI patients had a higher risk of hospital mortality than non-CDI patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.899; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.269-2.840), especially in 30-day mortality (OR, 2.521; 95% CI, 1.800-3.531). No correlation was found between hospital CDI and Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 0.830; 95% CI, 0.559-1.231). Patients treated in the ICU have an increased risk of hospital CDI (OR, 1.820; 95% CI, 1.161-2.851). However, the risk of CDI in patients who used to have surgery in surgical wards was not different to patients in the other departments (OR, 1.054; 95% CI, 0.838-1.325). Moreover, CDI patients in studies from the most recent 5 years have a higher risk of hospital mortality (OR, 2.171; 95% CI, 1.426-3.304).

      Conclusion

      Hospital CDI was associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality, especially in 30-day mortality. In addition, when compared with past years, CDI patients have a higher risk of hospital mortality in the most recent 5 years. Given the rapid dissemination of this organism worldwide, there is a need to aggressively develop and evaluate primary preventive strategies targeting CDI among hospitalized patients, especially in ICUs.

      Key Words

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