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Risk factors for surgical site infections after neurosurgery: A focus on the postoperative period

Published:August 20, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2015.07.005

      Background

      Surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery has potentially devastating consequences.

      Methods

      A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of 24 months in a university center. All adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, with exception of open skull fractures, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors.

      Results

      We included 949 patients. Among them, 43 were diagnosed with SSI (4.5%). A significant reduction in postneurosurgical SSI from 5.8% in 2009 to 3.0% in 2010 (P = .04) was observed. During that period, an active surveillance with regular feedback was established. The most common microorganisms isolated from SSI were Staphylococcus aureus (23%), Enterobacteriaceae (21%), and Propionibacterium acnes (12%). We identified the following independent risk factors for SSI postcranial surgery: intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay ≥7 days (odds ratio [OR] = 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-21.7), duration of drainage ≥3 days (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-11), and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (OR = 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-30). For SSIs postspinal surgery, we identified the following: ICU length of stay ≥7 days (OR = 7.2; 95% CI, 1.6-32.1), coinfection (OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.2-43.4), and duration of drainage ≥3 days (OR = 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5-22).

      Conclusion

      Active surveillance with regular feedback proved effective in reducing SSI rates. The postoperative period is associated with overlooked risk factors for neurosurgical SSI. Infection control measures targeting this period are therefore promising.

      Key Words

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