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Hand coverage by alcohol-based handrub varies: Volume and hand size matter

  • Walter Zingg
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Walter Zingg, MD, Infection Control Program and WHO Collaborating Center on Patient Safety, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland. (W. Zingg).
    Affiliations
    Infection Control Program and WHO Collaborating Centre on Patient Safety, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
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  • Tamas Haidegger
    Affiliations
    Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics, Óbuda University, Budapest, Hungary

    Austrian Center for Medical Innovation and Technology, Wiener Neustadt, Austria
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  • Didier Pittet
    Affiliations
    Infection Control Program and WHO Collaborating Centre on Patient Safety, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
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Published:August 24, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2016.07.006

      Highlights

      • One milliliter handrub is not sufficient for effective hand hygiene.
      • Three milliliter handrub cover small hands on both sides palms and dorsums.
      • Three milliliter handrub cover palms but not dorsums of medium and large hands.
      Visitors of an infection prevention and control conference performed hand hygiene with 1, 2, or 3 mL ultraviolet light-traced alcohol-based handrub. Coverage of palms, dorsums, and fingertips were measured by digital images. Palms of all hand sizes were sufficiently covered when 2 mL was applied, dorsums of medium and large hands were never sufficiently covered. Palmar fingertips were sufficiently covered when 2  or 3 mL was applied, and dorsal fingertips were never sufficiently covered.

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