Brief Report| Volume 46, ISSUE 11, P1311-1314, November 2018

Hand hygiene adherence in relation to influenza season during 6 consecutive years


      • Influenza season is an independent predictor of increased hand hygiene adherence.
      • This finding suggests a higher awareness of hand hygiene during influenza seasons.
      • Implications for healthcare worker education on hand hygiene should be considered.
      Hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important measure in reducing the burden of healthcare-acquired infections. Based on 12,740 HH opportunities observed during 6 consecutive years at our tertiary care center, HH adherence among healthcare workers (HCWs) was significantly better during influenza season compared to non-influenza periods, after controlling for important covariables (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.30). This finding suggests that HH awareness is increased during influenza periods, which could have implications for HCW education.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Infection Control
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Wong T.W.
        • Tam W.W.
        Handwashing practice and the use of personal protective equipment among medical students after the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong.
        Am J Infect Control. 2005; 33: 580-586
        • Fung I.C.
        • Cairncross S.
        How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003.
        Int J Environ Health Res. 2007; 17: 161-183
        • Miao Y.Y.
        • Huang J.H.
        Prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of increased hand hygiene practice during the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic: findings and prevention implications from a national survey in Taiwan.
        Trop Med Int Health. 2012; 17: 604-612
        • Federal Office of Public Health FOPH website
        Saisonale Grippe – Lagebericht Schweiz.
        (Available from:)
        Date accessed: December 8, 2017
        • WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care
        First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care.
        (Available from:)
        • Swissnoso National Center for Infection Control website
        CleanHands das Modul.
        (Available from:)
        • Labarca J.
        • Zambrano A.
        • Niklitschek S.
        • Ferres M.
        • Perez C.
        • Rabagliati R.
        • et al.
        H1N1 pandemic influenza impact on hand hygiene and specific precautions compliance among healthcare workers.
        J Hosp Infect. 2011; 79: 177-179
        • Pires Dos Santos R.
        • Konkewicz L.R.
        • Nagel F.
        • Lisboa T.
        • Jacoby T.
        • Gastal S.L.
        • et al.
        The 2009 H1N1 influenza a pandemic and hand hygiene practices in a hospital in the South of Brazil.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010; 31: 1313-1315
        • Kohler P.
        • Kahlert C.
        • Simonet S.
        • Rettenmund G.
        • Schöbi B.
        • Rafeiner P.
        • et al.
        Improvement of hand hygiene adherence in physicians after a hospital wide campaign.
        (ECCMID A, London; P1978; Available from:)
        • Hersey S.
        • Martel L.D.
        • Jambai A.
        • Keita S.
        • Yoti Z.
        • Meyer E.
        • et al.
        Ebola Virus Disease–Sierra Leone and Guinea, August 2015.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015; 64: 981-984