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A multicenter point prevalence survey of healthcare–associated infections in Pakistan: Findings and implications

  • Zikria Saleem
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Zikria Saleem, MPhil, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia.
    Affiliations
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

    Department of Pharmacy Practice, University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
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  • Mohamed Azmi Hassali
    Affiliations
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
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  • Brian Godman
    Affiliations
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, United Kingdom

    Health Economics Centre, University of Liverpool Management School, Liverpool, United Kingdom
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  • Furqan Khurshid Hashmi
    Affiliations
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

    Department of Pharmacy Practice, University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
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  • Fahad Saleem
    Affiliations
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
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Published:November 22, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.09.025

      Background

      Healthcare–associated infections (HAIs) are seen as a global public health threat, leading to increased mortality and morbidity as well as costs. However, little is currently known about the prevalence of HAIs in Pakistan. Consequently, this multicenter prevalence survey of HAIs was conducted to assess the prevalence of HAIs in Pakistan.

      Methods

      We used the methodology employed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to assess the prevalence of HAIs in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Data were collected from 13 hospitals using a structured data collection tool.

      Results

      Out of 1,553 hospitalized patients, 130 (8.4%) had symptoms of HAIs. The most common HAI was surgical site infection (40.0%), followed by bloodstream infection (21.5%), and lower respiratory tract infection (14.6%). The prevalence of HAI was higher in private sector hospitals (25.0%) and among neonates (23.8%) and patients admitted to intensive care units (33.3%). Patients without HAIs were admitted mainly to public sector hospitals and adult medical and surgical wards.

      Conclusions

      The study found a high rate of HAIs among hospitals in Pakistan, especially surgical site infections, bloodstream infections, and lower respiratory tract infections. This needs to be addressed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and costs in the future, and further research is planned.

      Key Words

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