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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Safe use of personal protective equipment in the treatment of infectious diseases of high consequence. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/safe-use-personal-protective-equipment-treatment-infectious-diseases-high. Accessed October 29, 2018.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Personal protective equipment. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3151.pdf. Accessed October 29, 2018.
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Los Angeles Times. Study reveals why gowns and gloves can be so dangerous for hospital workers. Available from: http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-hospital-contamination-gowns-gloves-fail-20151011-story.html. Accessed October 29, 2018.
- Preventing infections in the ICU: one size does not fit all.JAMA. 2013; 310: 1567-1568
Electronic Library of Construction Occupational Safety and Health. Personal protective equipment for women—addressing the need. Available from: http://elcosh.org/document/1198/d001110/PersonalProtectiveEquipmentforWomen-AddressingtheNeed.html. Accessed October 29, 2018.
Janocha JA, Smith RT. Workplace safety and health in the health care and social assistance industry. Available from: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/cwc/workplace-safety-and-health-in-the-health-care-and-social-assistance-industry-2003-07.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2018.
- Preventing transmission of pandemic influenza and other viral respiratory diseases: personal protective equipment for healthcare workers.(editors) National Academies Press, WashingtonDC2011
- Women, work, and health: issues of importance to the occupational health nurse.Occup Health Nurs. 1983; 31: 18-23
- Variation in health care worker removal of personal protective equipment.Am J Infect Control. 2015; 43: 750-751
- Training retention of level C personal protective equipment use by emergency medical services personnel.Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14: 846-849
Infection Control Today. The role of personal protective equipment in infection prevention history. Available from: https://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/personal-protective-equipment/role-personal-protective-equipment-infection-prevention-history. Accessed October 29, 2018.
- Lessons from the SARS crisis—more relevant than ever.Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2006; 35: 299-300
- Research gaps in protecting healthcare workers from SARS and other respiratory pathogens: an interdisciplinary, multi-stakeholder, evidence-based approach.J Occup Environ Med. 2005; 47: 41-50
- Appropriate use of personal protectiveequipment among healthcare workers in public sector hospitals and primary healthcare polyclinics during the SARS outbreak in Singapore.Occup Environ Med. 2005; 62: 473-477
- The use of personal protective equipment for control of influenza among critical care clinicians:a survey study.Crit Care Med. 2009; 37: 1210-1216
- Are health care personnel trained in correct use of personal protective equipment?.Am J Infect Control. 2016; 44: 840-842
- Occupational exposure to infection risk and use of personal protective equipment by emergency medical personnel in the Republic of Korea.Am J Infect Control. 2016; 44: 647-651
- Contamination of health care personnel during removal of personal protective equipment.JAMA Intern Med. 2015; 175: 1904-1910
- Factors influencing nurses’ compliance with standard precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: a focus group study.BMC Nurs. 2011; 10: 1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Protecting healthcare personnel. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/hai/prevent/ppe.html. Accessed October 29, 2018.
- A review of isolation gowns in healthcare: fabric and gown properties.J Eng Fiber Fabr. 2015; 10: 180-190
- Isolation gowns in health care settings: laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use.Am J Infect Control. 2016; 44: 104-111
US Food and Drug Administration. Questions about personal protective equipment (PPE). Available from: https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/GeneralHospitalDevicesandSupplies/PersonalProtectiveEquipment/ucm055943.htm. Accessed October 29, 2018.
ASTM International. Standard specification for rubber examination gloves. Available from: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D3578.htm. Accessed October 29, 2018.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Proper respirator use, storage, maintenance, repair, disposal. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/hospresptoolkit/properusestorage.html. Accessed October 29, 2018.
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Funding/support: All authors were supported in the conduction of this work byCenters for Disease Control and Prevention grant CK000448-02 to the senior author(L.A.H.).
Conflicts of interest: None to report.