- •A multitude of factors can affect cleaning efficacy.
- •Some areas within the ward were consistently clean, and others were consistently dirty.
- •Surfaces with lower colony-forming unit counts before cleaning became more contaminated following cleaning, than surfaces with higher initial colony-forming unit counts.
- •Personal perceptions of cleanability and risk to patients, surface material, who was delegated to clean, and staff groups interacting with the surfaces had an impact on cleaning efficacy.
- •Interactions among these factors are complex, and consideration must be given to them when designing cleaning interventions.
- •The findings from this study can be used to inform and improve cleaning training programs.
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Conflicts of interest: None to report.