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Risk factors for catheter-related infection in children with cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Highlights

      • Having a hematological malignancy is a risk factor for CRI.
      • Whether neutropenia at the moment of catheter placement is a risk factor for CLABSI is uncertain.
      • Among long-term catheters, tunneled, lumen diameter ≥ 7Fr, and multi-lumen devices presented the higher incidence of infections.
      • Ports showed lower rates of CLABSI.
      • Gram-positive bacteria are the most frequent pathogens.

      Abstract

      Rationale

      To understand the risk factors for catheter-related infection during treatment of pediatric cancer is essential to implement measures to prevent its occurrence.

      Background

      We performed a comprehensive systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to identify and synthesize the main risk factors for catheter-related infection in children undergoing oncological treatment.

      Methods

      Systematic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Lilacs, and BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) until January 2022, following PRISMA guidelines. The search was not limited to language or dates. Risk factors were divided into host-related, assistance-related, and catheter types. We also describe the most common pathogens.

      Results

      Thirteen studies were included in the review. Diagnosis of hematological neoplasm, the intensity of treatment, blood transfusion in the 4-7 days before the infection, type of long-term catheters (tunneled externalized catheters, double lumen, greater diameter), inpatient treatment, and a longer period of hospitalization were the most consistent risk factors. Metanalysis showed that neutropenia at the moment of catheter placement is not a risk factor for central-line-associated bloodstream infections, however, there is high heterogeneity between studies. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common pathogen reported.

      Conclusions

      Understanding risk factors is an essential step to reduce morbidity and mortality of catheter-related infection. Education for preventive measures, reduction of hospitalization, wisely choosing the most adequate type of catheter, and the best moment for catheter insertion may reduce the occurrence of catheter-related infection.

      Key Words

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