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Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia among inpatients with mental disorders in a large mental health center within a tertiary general hospital

      Highlights

      • Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) was common in inpatients with mental disorders.
      • HAP incidence was higher in patients on closed wards than in those on open wards.
      • HAP was prevalent in patients with organic mental disorders or schizophrenia.
      • HAP prolonged the hospitalization of inpatients with mental disorders.
      • Patients with mental disorders have unique risk factors for HAP.

      Abstract

      Background

      : Few researchers have investigated the incidence of and risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) among inpatients with mental disorders in a general hospital.

      Methods

      : This study included patients with mental disorders hospitalized in a large mental health center (situated in a general hospital) between January 1, 2017 and July 31, 2021 (excluding January 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020). Risk factors for HAP were identified by logistic regression analysis after propensity score matching (PSM, 1:4) for gender, age, duration of observation and hospital ward.

      Results

      : The study included 16,864 patients. HAP incidence rate was 1.15% overall, 2.11% on closed wards, 0.75% on open wards, 4.45% in patients with organic mental disorders, 1.80% in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 0.84% in patients with mood disorders. Risk factors for HAP after PSM were hypoproteinemia, chronic liver disease, use of clozapine, hospitalization during the previous 180 days, body mass index (BMI) ≤18.5 kg/m2, cholinesterase inhibitor use and mood stabilizer use.

      Conclusion

      : HAP was common among inpatients with mental disorders. Risk factors for HAP in patients with mental disorders include hypoproteinemia, chronic liver disease, hospitalization during the past 180 days, BMI ≤18.5 kg/m2, and use of clozapine, cholinesterase inhibitors or mood stabilizers.

      Keywords

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