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Development and evaluation of an Ultra-Wide Bandwidth based electronic hand hygiene monitoring system

  • Lin Yang
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Hong Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Yan Ren
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Jiao Shan
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Shuang Liu
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Hongxin Wei
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Hui Chen
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Hui Chen, MD, PhD, Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control and Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, 31 Xinjiekou East St, Xicheng, Beijing 100035, China. Tel: +86 10 58516628; Fax: +86 10 58516627
    Affiliations
    Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Control, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China

    Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Forth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China
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      Highlights

      • An UWB based EHHMS was explored, debugged and upgraded for the first time
      • UWB with electronic fence can identify a clear and controllable boundary of bed area
      • The EHHMS had the capability of obtaining hand hygiene opportunity at bed-level
      • Accuracy of EHHMS comparing with direct observation was evaluated in clinics
      • The EHHMS showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for capturing HH performance

      Abstract

      Background

      A large variety of electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (EHHMS) are being developed and applied in health care settings. Monitoring hand hygiene (HH) opportunity at bed-level has been the key technical challenge. Accuracy evaluation needs more attention as the prerequisite upon widespread acceptance and adoption.

      Methods

      For the first time, we explored, debugged and upgraded an EHHMS based on ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) which can obtain HH opportunities at bed-level. The real-time positioning and electronic fence of UWB technology was applied for EHHMS. The accuracy of EHHMS was compared with the simultaneous manual direct observations in real-world clinical setting. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for EHHMS capturing HH action and opportunity.

      Results

      Two generations of EHHMS were constructed. For the first generation, the system properly recorded 84.00% and 78% of the pre-identified HH actions and opportunities performed by experimenters. For the second generation, Sensitivity and specificity of the system capturing HH action were 89.00% (84.83–92.36) and 100.00% (98.26–100.00), respectively. For capturing HH opportunity, the system showed the sensitivity and specificity of 86.52% (82.52–89.89) and 88.10% (84.14–91.36)), respectively.

      Conclusion

      The EHHMS based on UWB could accurately identify HH action and opportunity with equivalent accuracy compared with simultaneous direct observation.

      Keywords

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