- •Multidrug resistant-gram negative bacteria colonization ranged from 11.2%-59.1%.
- •E coli accounted for the largest proportion of isolates.
- •The most common site of colonization was rectal, followed by nasal, sputum, urinary tract and wound.
- •Colonization was significantly higher in studies conducted in United States (38%) compared to other countries (14%).
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to American Journal of Infection Control
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in the hospital setting: overview, implications for clinical practice, and emerging treatment options.Microb Drug Resist. 2016; 22: 412-431
- Current epidemiology of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the United States.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010; 31 (S51-4)
- Multi-site gram-negative bacilli surveillance initiative.(Available from:)http://www.cdc.gov/hai/eip/mugsi.html(Accessed January 9, 2016)Date: 2015
- Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014; 23: 163-182
- The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46: 155-164
- Multidrug-resistant organism infections in US nursing homes: a national study of prevalence, onset, and transmission across care settings, October 1, 2010-December 31, 2011.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014; 35 (S48-55)
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among patients who require chronic hemodialysis.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 3: 752-758
- Diagnostic challenge of bloodstream infections in long-term care.J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011; 12: 166-168
- Impact of inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy on mortality of septic patients with bacteremia: a retrospective study.Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2012; 2012: 765205
- Bacteremia in a multilevel geriatric hospital.J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011; 12: 204-207
- Conceptual model for reducing infections and antimicrobial resistance in skilled nursing facilities: focusing on residents with indwelling devices.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: 654-661
- Patient-level interventions to prevent the acquisition of resistant gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a systematic review.Anaesth Intensive Care. 2015; 43: 23-33
- Appropriate initial antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients with gram-negative infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15: 395
- Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group.JAMA. 2000; 283: 2008-2012
- Influx of multidrug resistant, Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) in a public hospital among elderly patients from long-term care facilities: a single-center pilot study.Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012; 54 (e19-22)
- The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions.J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998; 52: 377-384
- Obstetric anal sphincter injury and anal incontinence following vaginal birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Midwifery Womens Health. 2015; 60: 37-47
- Intrauterine contraception continuation in adolescents and young women: a systematic review.J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016; 29: 659-667
- The burden of multidrug-resistant organisms on tertiary hospitals posed by patients with recent stays in long-term acute care facilities.Am J Infect Control. 2012; 40: 760-765
- How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted?.Stat Med. 2002; 21: 1559-1573
- Publication bias in meta-analysis: prevention, assessment, and adjustments.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England2005
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: inter- and intradissemination among nursing homes of residents with advanced dementia.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015; 36: 930-935
- Multidrug-resistant bacteria in geriatric clinics, nursing homes, and ambulant care—prevalence and risk factors.Int J Med Microbiol. 2013; 303: 405-409
- Current prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms in long-term care facilities in the Rhine-Main district, Germany, 2013.Euro Surveill. 2015; 20 (pii: 21171)
- Changes in colonization of residents and staff of a long-term care facility and an adjacent acute-care hospital geriatric unit by multidrug-resistant bacteria over a four-year period.Scand J Infect Dis. 2014; 46: 114-122
- Infection management and multidrug-resistant organisms in nursing home residents with advanced dementia.JAMA Intern Med. 2014; 174: 1660-1667
- Colonization with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: prolonged duration and frequent cocolonization.Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48: 1375-1381
- The emerging threat of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms in long-term care facilities.J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009; 64: 138-141
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in a long-term care facility: prevalence and risk factors.J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008; 56: 1276-1280
- Influx of multidrug-resistant, gram-negative bacteria in the hospital setting and the role of elderly patients with bacterial bloodstream infection.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009; 30: 325-331
- Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bloodstream infections among residents of long-term care facilities.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014; 35: 519-526
- Keeping the “home” in nursing home: implications for infection prevention.JAMA Intern Med. 2013; 173: 853-854
- Infection prevention and control in nursing homes: a qualitative study of decision-making regarding isolation-based practices.BMJ Qual Saf. 2015; 24: 630-636
- Preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens: recommendations of an expert panel of the German Society For Hygiene and Microbiology.Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012; 109: 39-45
- Colonization with multi-drug resistant organisms in nursing homes: scope, importance, and management.Curr Geriatr Rep. 2015; 4: 87-95
- Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.Med J Aust. 2015; 202: 243-247
- National strategy for combating antibiotic resistant bacteria.(Available from:)Accessed May 15, 2016)
- 10 × ‘20 Progress—development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Clin Infect Dis. 2013; 56: 1685-1694
SA is supported by an award from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the UnitedHealth Group Foundation. The sponsors had no role in the design, methods, data collection, analysis, and writing of this manuscript.
Conflicts of interest: None to report.